Travel Corridor Arrangement Application Process by Goverments of Indonesia and Singapore


  • Fitri Kurnianingsih Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji
  • Mahadiansar Mahadiansar Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji
  • Oksep Adhayanto Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji



Travel Corridor Arrangement, application, Indonesia, Singapore


The discussion on the Travel Corridor Arrangement (TCA) between the Indonesian and Singaporean governments will continue in the future, but technically and practically, there are still certain issues that the Indonesian government has not addressed effectively. This demonstrates that we are technically still waiting for the correct judgement while the COVID-19 pandemic's case count declines. The goal of this article is to examine different research hypotheses on the elements that impact Indonesia's readiness for TCA with the Singapore government. The technique employed is a qualitative literature review. To bolster the literature review with secondary data, the researchers enhanced the examination of research hypotheses using the NVivo program, which was then thoroughly assessed. The findings indicate that researchers will also identify that Indonesia will be more sensitive to TCA than Singapore, resulting in the decision being rejected, while the next hypothesis is that TCA is also focused on tourists, as opposed to business activities between the two countries, and that the Indonesian government has also proposed implementing RGL, but RGL is not a priority, implying that TCA is more effective. if RGL is emphasized, the hypothesis may be accepted. This suggests that based on some of the results of these hypotheses, the rejection of the first hypothesis is due to a lack of expertise in Human Resource Management in implementing TCA with the Singapore government


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Fitri Kurnianingsih, Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji

Department of Master Public Administration

Mahadiansar Mahadiansar, Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji

Department of Public Administration

Oksep Adhayanto, Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji

Department of Law


Ali, W., Frynas, J. G., & Mahmood, Z. (2017). Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Disclosure in Developed and Developing Countries: A Literature Review: Determinants of CSR Disclosure. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 24(4), 273–294.

Archibugi, D., & Coco, A. (2004). A New Indicator of Technological Capabilities for Developed and Developing Countries (ArCo). World Development, 32(4), 629–654.

Baker, M. G., Wilson, N., & Blakely, T. (2020). Elimination Could Be the Optimal Response Strategy for COVID-19 and Other Emerging Pandemic Diseases. BMJ, m4907.

Balsas, C. J. L. (2021). Sustainable Urbanism: Riverfront Greenway Planning From Tradition to Innovation. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 1–21.

Bazeley, P. (2007). Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo. SAGE Publications.

Chan, Y. W., & Haines, D. (2021, May 17). Asia Pacific Travel Bubbles and the COVID-19 ‘Diseasescape.’ EastAsiaForum.

Connor, C. (2021). Computing for Numeracy: How Safe is Your COVID-19 Social Bubble? Numeracy, 14(1).

Dedrick, J., Kraemer, K. L., & Shih, E. (2013). Information Technology and Productivity in Developed and Developing Countries. Journal of Management Information Systems, 30(1), 97–122.

Dickens, B. L., Koo, J. R., Lim, J. T., Park, M., Sun, H., Sun, Y., Zeng, Z., Quaye, S. E. D., Clapham, H. E., Wee, H. L., & Cook, A. R. (2021). Determining Quarantine Length and Testing Frequency for International Border Opening During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Travel Medicine, 28(7), taab088.

Dobransky, K., & Hargittai, E. (2021). Piercing the Pandemic Social Bubble: Disability and Social Media Use About COVID-19. American Behavioral Scientist, 65(12), 1698–1720.

Edhlund, B., & McDougall, A. (2018). NVivo 12 Essentials.

Fauzi, M. A., & Paiman, N. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic in Southeast Asia: Intervention and Mitigation Efforts. Asian Education and Development Studies, 10(2), 176–184.

Filonchyk, M., Hurynovich, V., & Yan, H. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Air Quality in the Poland, Eastern Europe. Environmental Research, 198, 110454.

Fusté-Forné, F., & Michael, N. (2021). Limited Tourism: Travel Bubbles for a Sustainable Future. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1–18.

Galvan, J. L., & Galvan, M. C. (2017). Writing Literature Reviews: A Guide for Students of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Taylor & Francis.

Greenwood, J. (2019). The European Citizens’ Initiative: Bringing the EU Closer to Its Citizens? Comparative European Politics, 17(6), 940–956.

Gu, Y., Onggo, B. S., Kunc, M. H., & Bayer, S. (2022). Small Island Developing States (SIDS) COVID-19 Post-pandemic Tourism Recovery: A System Dynamics Approach. Current Issues in Tourism, 25(9), 1481–1508.

Guiggiani, M., & Casalini, P. (1987). Direct Computation of Cauchy Principal Value Integrals in Advanced Boundary Elements. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 24(9), 1711–1720.

Henry. (2021, July 6). Nasib Rencana TCA Bali, Batam dan Bintan Terkait Penerapan PPKM Darurat. Liputan6.

Hobday, M. (2005). Firm-level Innovation Models: Perspectives on Research in Developed and Developing Countries. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 17(2), 121–146.

Inasis, G. V. (2021, September 15). Sandiaga Uno Harap Pembukaan TCA Bali-Batam-Bintan Bisa Segera Dilakukan. KumparanTravel.

Jiang, X., Kim, A., Kim, K. (Anthony), Yang, Q., García-Fernández, J., & Zhang, J. J. (2021). Motivational Antecedents, Value Co-Creation Process, and Behavioral Consequences in Participatory Sport Tourism. Sustainability, 13(17), 9916.

Kurnianingsih, F., Zulkarnain, I., & Mahadiansar, M. (2021). How Socio-Economic Impact Tourism Development in Pandemic COVID-19? Study of Bintan Regency, Indonesia. International Journal of Social Science and Religion (IJSSR), 175–190.

Labuda, M. (2021). Działalność Unii Europejskiej przeciw pandemii COVID-19 na Ukrainie. Nowa Polityka Wschodnia, 28(1), 9–21.

Lapointe, D. (2020). Reconnecting Tourism After COVID-19: The Paradox of Alterity in Tourism Areas. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 633–638.

Law, C. C. H., & Katekaew, R. (2022). COVID-19: ASEAN Aviation Policy and the Significance of Intra-regional Connectivity. Journal of Asian Economic Integration, 4(1), 1–23.

Mahadiansar, M., Wijaya, A. F., & Wanto, A. H. (2021). Analisis Dampak Penutupan Akses Pariwisata di Wilayah Perbatasan Kabupaten Bintan pada Masa Pandemi COVID-19. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Perbatasan Dan Desa 2021, 118–127.

McCusker, K., & Gunaydin, S. (2015). Research Using Qualitative, Quantitative or Mixed Methods and Choice Based on the Research. Perfusion, 30(7), 537–542.

McNeill, H. (2021). Dealing with the ‘Crimmigrant Other’ in the Face of a Global Public Health Threat: A Snapshot of Deportation during COVID-19 in Australia and New Zealand. Social Sciences, 10(8), 278.

Monath, T. P. (1994). Dengue: The Risk to Developed and Developing Countries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(7), 2395–2400.

Musfiroh, A., Mugiyati, M., & Iman, A. K. N. (2021). Strategies to Improve Halal Tourism in Indonesia During the Pandemic COVID-19. Jurnal Ilmiah Ekonomi Islam, 7(2), 1048–1052.

Neopane, A., & Waglé, S. (2020). Appraisal of Global Economic Outlook in the Time of COVID-19. Institute for Integrated Development Studies.

Nielsen, K., & Pedersen, O. K. (1988). The Negotiated Economy: Ideal and History. Scandinavian Political Studies, 11(2), 79–102.

Olsen, W. (2004). Methodological Triangulation and Realist Research: An Indian Exemplar. In B. Carter & C. New (Eds.), Making Realism Work: Realist Social Theory and Empirical Research. Routledge.

Otsuka, K., Nakano, Y., & Takahashi, K. (2016). Contract Farming in Developed and Developing Countries. Annual Review of Resource Economics, 8(1), 353–376.

Portes, A. (1976). On the Sociology of National Development: Theories and Issues. American Journal of Sociology, 82(1), 55–85.

Pramana, S., Paramartha, D. Y., Ermawan, G. Y., Deli, N. F., & Srimulyani, W. (2022). Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Tourism in Indonesia. Current Issues in Tourism, 25(15), 2422–2442.

Riadil, I. G. (2020). Tourism Industry Crisis and Its Impacts: Investigating the Indonesian Tourism Employees Perspectives’ in the Pandemic of COVID-19. Jurnal Kepariwisataan: Destinasi, Hospitalitas Dan Perjalanan, 4(2), 98–108.

Ristova Maglovska, C., & Durgutov, I. (2021). Rebuilding Tourism and Travel for the Future: Policy Responses to the Coronavirus (COVID-19). Challenges of Tourism and Business Logistics in the 21st Century, 167–176.

Riyadi, A., Bakar, M. A. A., & Hidayat, C. (2022). Opportunities and Challenges of Globalisation for ASEAN Destinations Through the One Belt One Road Initiative. In I. Mensah, K. Balasubramanian, M. R. Jamaluddin, G. Alcoriza, V. Gaffar, & S. M. Rasoolimanesh (Eds.), Marketing Tourist Destinations in Emerging Economies (pp. 259–273). Springer International Publishing.

Sabir, S., Rafique, A., & Abbas, K. (2019). Institutions and FDI: Evidence From Developed and Developing Countries. Financial Innovation, 5(1), 8.

Saini, N., & Singhania, M. (2018). Determinants of FDI in Developed and Developing Countries: A Quantitative Analysis Using GMM. Journal of Economic Studies, 45(2), 348–382.

Sandelowski, M. (2010). What’s in a Name? Qualitative Description Revisited. Research in Nursing & Health, 33(1), 77–84.

Schneider, P. H. (2005). International Trade, Economic Growth and Intellectual Property Rights: A Panel Data Study of Developed and Developing Countries. Journal of Development Economics, 78(2), 529–547.

Sentanu, I. G. E. P. S. (2015). Increasing Trust in Local Government Financial Management and Building Integrity: Efforts Reform in Indonesia. Public Policy and Administration Research, 5(3), 206–213.

Sergi, B. S., Popkova, E. G., Bogoviz, A. V., & Ragulina, J. V. (2019). Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: The Experience of Developed and Developing Countries. In B. S. Sergi & C. C. Scanlon (Eds.), Entrepreneurship and Development in the 21st Century (pp. 3–32). Emerald Publishing Limited.

Sharun, K., Tiwari, R., Natesan, S., Yatoo, M. I., Malik, Y. S., & Dhama, K. (2020). International Travel During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications and Risks Associated With ‘Travel Bubbles.’ Journal of Travel Medicine, 27(8), taaa184.

Sigala, M. (2020). Tourism and COVID-19: Impacts and Implications for Advancing and Resetting Industry and Research. Journal of Business Research, 117, 312–321.

Sthiannopkao, S., & Wong, M. H. (2013). Handling E-waste in Developed and Developing Countries: Initiatives, Practices, and Consequences. Science of The Total Environment, 463–464, 1147–1153.

Subawa, N. S., Widhiasthini, N. W., Astawa, I. P., Dwiatmadja, C., & Permatasari, N. P. I. (2021). The Practices of Virtual Reality Marketing in the Tourism Sector, a Case Study of Bali, Indonesia. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(23), 3284–3295.

Sugihamretha, I. D. G. (2020). Respon Kebijakan COVID-19: Menggairahkan Kembali Ekonomi Indonesia dengan Membuka Travel Bubble dan Koridor Intra-Indonesia. Bappenas Working Papers, 3(2), 126–142.

Sun, X., Wandelt, S., Zheng, C., & Zhang, A. (2021). COVID-19 Pandemic and Air Transportation: Successfully Navigating the Paper Hurricane. Journal of Air Transport Management, 94, 102062.

Vivarelli, M. (2013). Is Entrepreneurship Necessarily Good? Microeconomic Evidence From Developed and Developing Countries. Industrial and Corporate Change, 22(6), 1453–1495.

Wang, C., Wang, D., Abbas, J., Duan, K., & Mubeen, R. (2021). Global Financial Crisis, Smart Lockdown Strategies, and the COVID-19 Spillover Impacts: A Global Perspective Implications From Southeast Asia. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 643783.

Wibowo, B. P., Olivia, S., Sodikin, A., & Fitrina, R. (2020). The Analysis of Health Alert Card (HAC) Distribution and Body-Temperature Checking Towards Customer’s Satisfaction at Soekarno-Hatta Airport in Pandemic COVID-19 Era. Advances in Transportation and Logistics Research, 3, 302–312.

Widyanti, N. N. W. (2021, June 7). Travel Corridor Bali Masuki Tahap Finalisasi Uji Coba Juli 2021. Kompas.Com.

Wiltshier, F. (2011). Researching With NVivo. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 12(1).

Xie, T., Wang, J., & Liu, S. (2021). Impact of Travel Bubbles: Cooperative Travel Arrangements in a Pandemic. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Yang, Y., Altschuler, B., Liang, Z., & Li, X. (Robert). (2021). Monitoring the Global COVID-19 Impact on Tourism: The COVID19tourism Index. Annals of Tourism Research, 90, 103120.

Zed, M. (2014). Metode Penelitian Kepustakaan (3rd ed.). Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

Zhang, A., Sun, X., Wandelt, S., Zhang, Y., Xu, S., & Shen, R. (2021). COVID-19, Air Transportation, and International Trade in the ASEAN+5 Region (ERIA Discussion Paper Series).




How to Cite

Kurnianingsih, F., Mahadiansar, M., & Adhayanto, O. (2022). Travel Corridor Arrangement Application Process by Goverments of Indonesia and Singapore. Jurnal Bina Praja: Journal of Home Affairs Governance, 14(2), 263–274.




Most read articles by the same author(s)