Adaptation Strategy of the Bajo Fishermen towards Climate Change

  • Herdis Herdiansyah Universitas Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2684-3551
  • Zarah Beby Ningrum Universitas Indonesia
  • Ika Syiami Fitri Universitas Indonesia
  • Mulyawan Mulyawan Universitas Indonesia
Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Fishermen, Coastal Communities, Bajo People, Indonesia

Abstract

Climate change currently becomes the concern of policymakers and academics because the impact is already extensive. The Bajo People Community, located in Wakatobi, Southeast Sulawesi is a coastal community with a significant portion of its population living as fishermen. The people and fishermen in the Bajo people also felt the impact of climate change on the coastal and marine environment. The effect on the environment is very influential on the economic and social community of the Bajo People. This study aims to define the alternative to propose adaptation strategy to deal with climate change for fishermen. The benefit of this study is to provide input for planners, policymakers, and practitioners related to fisheries in the territory of Indonesia. Climate change adaptation is necessary to maintain the quality of life of fishers and to achieve the stability of available resources. This study used a literature study and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) as its method to find the alternative strategy in order to face climate change. The plan proposed in this research are three, namely increasing knowledge and information about climate change, resource management, and livelihood diversification. The result of this research is that Bajo Fishermen need an appropriate adaptation strategy to mitigate the situation towards climate change issues, which is necessary to prevent the disruption of economic and social activities, focusing on the cognitive, practical and structured aspects that base on cultural values, norms, and customs of the Bajo people. This study found four useful variables to be used as coping strategies for climate change, which are social, ecological, economic and political alternatives. The four variables are strengthening the surveillance of epidemic disease, developing fish gear technology, improving proper water treatment management, and creating awareness of climate change for the fishermen community.

Author Biographies

Herdis Herdiansyah, Universitas Indonesia

School of Environmental Science

Zarah Beby Ningrum, Universitas Indonesia

School of Environmental Science

Ika Syiami Fitri, Universitas Indonesia

School of Environmental Science

Mulyawan Mulyawan, Universitas Indonesia

School of Environmental Science

References

Abu Samah, A., Hamdan, M. E., Samah, B. A., Hamzah, A., & Shaffril, H. A. M. (2016). Adaptation Towards Climate Change among Small Scale Fishermen: A Comparison Between the East Coast and West Coast Fishermen in Peninsular Malaysia. The Social Sciences, 11, 3458–3462. http://doi.org/10.3923/sscience.2016.3458.3462

Adimu, H. E., Boer, M., Yulianda, F., & Damar, A. (2018). Review management policy marine conservation area of Wakatobi National Park. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 176, 012035. http://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/176/1/012035

Ahmed, N., Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A., & Muir, J. F. (2013). The impact of climate change on prawn postlarvae fishing in coastal Bangladesh: Socioeconomic and ecological perspectives. Marine Policy, 39, 224–233. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.10.008

Alauddin, M. I., Bauto, L. M., & Sarpin. (2016). Perubahan Pola Kehidupan Suku Bajo Pasca Penetapan Zonasi Taman Nasional. Jurnal Neo Societal, 1(1), 23–33. Retrieved from http://ojs.uho.ac.id/index.php/NeoSocietal/article/view/3366

Berry, P. M., Brown, S., Chen, M., Kontogianni, A., Rowlands, O., Simpson, G., & Skourtos, M. (2015). Cross-sectoral interactions of adaptation and mitigation measures. Climatic Change, 128(3–4), 381–393. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1214-0

Brander, K. (2010). Impacts of climate change on fisheries. Journal of Marine Systems, 79(3–4), 389–402. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.12.015

Brashares, J. S. (2004). Bushmeat Hunting, Wildlife Declines, and Fish Supply in West Africa. Science, 306(5699), 1180–1183. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1102425

Burger, J., Gochfeld, M., Niles, L., Tsipoura, N., Mizrahi, D., Dey, A., … Pittfield, T. (2017). Stakeholder contributions to assessment, monitoring, and conservation of threatened species: black skimmer and red knot as case studies. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189(2), 60. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5731-3

Cao, L., Caldeira, K., & Jain, A. K. (2007). Effects of carbon dioxide and climate change on ocean acidification and carbonate mineral saturation. Geophysical Research Letters, 34(5). http://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028605

Caras, T., & Pasternak, Z. (2009). Long-term environmental impact of coral mining at the Wakatobi marine park, Indonesia. Ocean & Coastal Management, 52(10), 539–544. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.08.006

Conway, D., Allison, E., Felstead, R., & Goulden, M. (2005). Rainfall variability in East Africa: implications for natural resources management and livelihoods. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 363(1826), 49–54. http://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2004.1475

Costello, A., Abbas, M., Allen, A., Ball, S., Bell, S., Bellamy, R., … Patterson, C. (2009). Managing the health effects of climate change. The Lancet, 373(9676), 1693–1733. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60935-1

Cullen, L. C. (2007). Marine resource dependence, resource use patterns and identification of economic performance criteria within a small Indo-Pacific island community. University of Essex.

Dasgupta, P., Morton, J. F., Dodman, D., Karapinar, B., Meza, F., Rivera-Ferre, M. G., … Vincent, K. E. (2014). Rural Areas. In C. B. Field, V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, … L. L. White (Eds.), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 613–657). Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Hamzah, A. (2009). Respons Komunitas Nelayan terhadap Modernisasi Perikanan: Studi Kasus Nelayan Suku Bajo di Desa Lagasa Kabupaten Muna Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara. Jurnal AGRISEP, 8(2), 1–11. http://doi.org/10.31186/jagrisep.8.2.1-11

Hui, D. (2013). Global Climate Change and Biodiversity: Issues and Future Research. Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species, 01(02), 1–2. http://doi.org/10.4172/2332-2543.1000e105

Hui, D., Tian, H., & Luo, Y. (2012). Impacts of Climatic Changes on Biogeochemical Cycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems. In Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation (pp. 433–470). New York, NY: Springer US. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7991-9_13

Hussain, S. A., & Badola, R. (2008). Valuing mangrove ecosystem services: linking nutrient retention function of mangrove forests to enhanced agroecosystem production. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 16(6), 441–450. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-008-9080-z

IPCC. (2001). Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. A Contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Integovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (R. T. Watson & Core Writing Team, Eds.). Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.

IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (Core Writing Team, R. K. Pachauri, & A. Reisinger, Eds.). Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (Core Writing Team, R. K. Pachauri, & L. Meyer, Eds.). Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Morton, J. F. (2007). The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(50), 19680–19685. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0701855104

Moser, S. C. (2014). Communicating adaptation to climate change: the art and science of public engagement when climate change comes home. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 5(3), 337–358. http://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.276

Muhammad, M., Idris, K., Ariffin, E. H., Shaffril, H. A. M., Samah, B. A., & Suandi, T. (2016). The Impact of Climate Change on Small-scale Fishermen in Malaysia. The Social Sciences, 11(13), 3352–3356. http://doi.org/10.3923/sscience.2016.3352.3356

Nurlaili. (2012). Strategi Adaptasi Nelayan Bajo Menghadapi Perubahan Iklim: Studi Nelayan Bajo di Kabupaten Sikka, Flores, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Jurnal Masyarakat Dan Budaya, 14(3), 599–624. Retrieved from http://jmb.lipi.go.id/index.php/jmb/article/view/107

Ogawa-Onishi, Y., & Berry, P. M. (2013). Ecological impacts of climate change in Japan: The importance of integrating local and international publications. Biological Conservation, 157, 361–371. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.06.024

Radetzki, M. (2010). The fallacies of concurrent climate policy efforts. Ambio, 39(3), 211–22. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20701178

Saaty, T. L. (1988). What is the Analytic Hierarchy Process? In Mathematical Models for Decision Support (pp. 109–121). Berlin, Heidelberg, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-83555-1_5

Saaty, T. L. (1989). Group Decision Making and the AHP. In The Analytic Hierarchy Process (pp. 59–67). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-50244-6_4

Satriani, Juhaepa, & Upe, A. (2018). Resistensi Sosial Masyarakat Suku Bajo (Studi Kasus atas Perlawanan Masyarakat di Pulau Masudu Kecamatan Poleang Tenggara terhadap Kebijakan Resettlement ke Desa Liano Kecamatan Mataoleo Kabupaten Bombana). Jurnal Neo Societal, 3(2), 408–415. Retrieved from http://ojs.uho.ac.id/index.php/NeoSocietal/article/view/4028

Scoones, I. (1998). Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Analysis (IDS Working Paper 72). IDS Working Paper 72. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.

Shaffril, H. A. M., Abu Samah, A., & D’Silva, J. L. (2017). Adapting towards climate change impacts: Strategies for small-scale fishermen in Malaysia. Marine Policy, 81, 196–201. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.03.032

Smit, B., & Wandel, J. (2006). Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 282–292. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.03.008

Suryanegara, E., Suprajaka, & Nahib, I. (2015). Perubahan Sosial pada Kehidupan Suku Bajo: Studi Kasus di Kepulauan Wakatobi, Sulawesi Tenggara. Majalah Ilmiah Globe, 17(1), 67–78. Retrieved from http://jurnal.big.go.id/index.php/GL/article/view/230

Tanner, T., Mitchell, T., Polack, E., & Guenther, B. (2009). Urban Governance for Adaptation: Assessing Climate Change Resilience in Ten Asian Cities. IDS Working Papers, 2009(315), 01-47. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2040-0209.2009.00315_2.x

UNDP Indonesia. (2007). Sisi Lain Perubahan Iklim: Mengapa Indonesia Harus Beradaptasi untuk Melindungi Rakyat Miskinnya. Jakarta: UNDP Indonesia.

Wianti, N. I., Dharmawan, A. H., Kinseng, R. A., & Wigna, W. (2012). Kapitalisme Lokal Suku Bajo. Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan, 6(1), 36–56. http://doi.org/10.22500/sodality.v6i1.5810

Wianti, N. I., Suriana, Ola, T. La, & Tadjuddah, M. (2018). The Vulnerability of Mantigola Bajo Household in Wakatobi Marine National Park. Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan, 6(1), 40–52. http://doi.org/10.22500/sodality.v6i1.21207

Yao-Dong, D., Xu-Hua, C., Xian-Wei, W., Hui, A., Hai-Lai, D., Jian, H., & Xiao-Xuan, W. (2013). A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China. Advances in Climate Change Research, 4(4), 201–207. http://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1248.2013.201

Yu, K., Jiang, M., Cheng, Z., & Chen, T. (2004). [Latest forty two years’ sea surface temperature change of Weizhou Island and its influence on coral reef ecosystem]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao = The Journal of Applied Ecology, 15(3), 506–10. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15228007

Zhao, H.-Y., Jun-Qin, G., Cun-Jie, Z., Lan-Dong, S., Xu-Dong, Z., Jing-Jing, L., … An-Xiang, D. (2014). Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Northwest China. Advances in Climate Change Research, 5(1), 7–16. http://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1248.2014.007

Zikra, M., Suntoyo, & Lukijanto. (2015). Climate Change Impacts on Indonesian Coastal Areas. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 14, 57–63. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeps.2015.07.085

Published
2018-11-13
Section
Articles