Capturing Social Capital Through Bandung City Community Index Arrangement and Development

  • Wiedy Yang Essa Bappelitbang Kota Bandung
Keywords: Social Capital, Community Index, Public Policy, Bandung City

Abstract

Bandung as a metropolitan city is faced with social problems, one of which is the diminishing value of social capital which has an impact on weak community participation in development. The Bandung City social index is a measure or value that describes the social capital of the city of Bandung and is expected to be the basis for policy formulation in response to various social challenges. However, social index measurement instruments have not been studied, so this study was conducted to compile Bandung City social index measurement instruments with valid and reliable variables and analyze the implementation process of the index measurement policy in the field. Social capital is a key concept in the formulation of a social index that is at the level of the micro aspect of “joint action” in the form of community participation. The research method uses mix methods where quantitative in testing the validity and reliability of instruments, qualitative in formulating indicators and analyzing constraints through in-depth interviews and FGDs with key stakeholders, conducted in the city of Bandung. Measurement instruments are obtained by synthesis of various theories and measurements of global and national social capital, discussed in the FGD, and tested for their validity and reliability. The results show variables of social capital with 15 indicators in 5 dimensions, namely participation, mutual trust, social norms and shared values, mutual respect, and relationships. The main obstacle faced in the process of implementing social index measurement policies is that substantially the measurement can be multi-interpretive, methodologically and psychologically vulnerable to subjectivity bias, and unpreparedness of human resources. The anticipation of various obstacles can be overcome through empowerment and active involvement of neighborhoods heads and socialization in the region.

References

Andrews, R. (2011). Exploring the Impact of Community and Organizational Social Capital on Government Performance. Political Research Quarterly, 64(4), 938–949. http://doi.org/10.1177/1065912910381649

Bappelitbang Kota Bandung. (2017a). Survey Indeks Kebahagiaan. Bandung: Pemerintah Kota Bandung.

Bappelitbang Kota Bandung. (2017b). Survey Index Liveable City. Bandung: Pemerintah Kota Bandung.

Bourdieu, P. (1986). The Forms of Capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood Press.

BPS-Statistics Indonesia. (2014). Statistics of Social Capital 2014. BPS-Statistics Indonesia.

Bryant, C.-A., & Norris, D. (2002). Measurement of Social Capital: The Canadian Experience. OECD.

Cahyono, B., & Adhiatma, A. (2012). Peran Modal Sosial dalam Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Masyarakat Petani Tembakau di Kabupaten Wonosobo. Conference In Business, Accounting, And Management (CBAM), 1(1), 131–144. Retrieved from http://jurnal.unissula.ac.id/index.php/cbam/article/view/128

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publications Inc.

Darto, M. (2016). Transformasi Mind-Set Pemimpin Daerah. Jurnal Borneo Administrator, 12(3), 211–216. http://doi.org/10.24258/jba.v12i3.261

Dwijatenaya, I. B. M. A., & Dewi, M. K. (2016). The Effects of Social Capital for the Management of Environment Cleanliness in Adipura Programme. Jurnal Bina Praja, 8(2), 175–185. http://doi.org/10.21787/jbp.08.2016.175-185

Edwards, R. W. (2004). Measuring Social Capital: An Australian Framework and Indicators. Canberra, Australia: Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press.

Grootaert, C. (1998). Social Capital: The Missing Link? (Social Capital Initiative Working Paper Series: No. 3). Washington, D.C. Retrieved from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/902971468764409654/Social-capital-the-missing-link

Hajiji, M., & team. (2016). Rapor Warga di Kota Bandung. Bandung, Indonesia: Bagian Pemerintahan Sekretariat Daerah Kota Bandung, Pemerintah Kota Bandung.

Harper, R. (2002). The Measurement of Social Capital in the United Kingdom. UK: National Statistics.

Harsono, W. (2014). Jimpitan, Modal Sosial yang Menjadi Solusi Permasalahan Masyarakat. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan Dan Administrasi Publik), 18(2), 131–145. Retrieved from https://journal.ugm.ac.id/jkap/article/view/7518

Kitchen, P., Williams, A., & Simone, D. (2012). Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario. Social Indicators Research, 108(2), 215–238. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0063-3

Kurniasih, D. (2005). Model Skala Prioritas Pembangunan Kota Badndung Berbasis Good Governance. Hubs-Asia, 9(2), 72–83. http://doi.org/10.7454/mssh.v9i2.125

Lederman, D., Loayza, N., & Menéndez, A. M. (2002). Violent Crime: Does Social Capital Matter? Economic Development and Cultural Change, 50(3), 509–539. http://doi.org/10.1086/342422

Lin, N. (1999). Building a Network Theory of Social Capital. Connections, 22(1), 28–51. Retrieved from http://insna.org/PDF/Connections/v22/1999_I-1-4.pdf

Logan, J. R. (2013). Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect, by Robert J. Sampson. Journal of Regional Science, 53(2), 353–355. http://doi.org/10.1111/jors.12024_3

Mokodompis, J. R. (2015). Pola Interaksi Sosial Masyarakat dalam Menunjang Pelaksanaan Pemerintahan Desa (Studi Kasus di Desa Pokol Kecamatan Tamako Kabupaten Kepulauan Sangihe). Jurnal Politico, 2(6), 1–13. Retrieved from https://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/politico/article/view/8596

OECD. (2001). The Well-being of Nations: The Role of Human and Social Capital. OECD Publishing. http://doi.org/10.1787/9789264189515-en

OECD. (2002). The Well-being of Nations The Role of Human and Social Capital: The Role of Human and Social Capital. OECD Publishing.

Onyx, J., & Bullen, P. (2000). Measuring Social Capital in Five Communities. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 36(1), 23–42. http://doi.org/10.1177/0021886300361002

Putnam, R. D. (1995). Tuning In, Tuning Out: The Strange Disappearance of Social Capital in America. PS: Political Science and Politics, 28(4), 664–683. http://doi.org/10.2307/420517

Righi, A. (2013). Measuring Social Capital: Official Statistics Initiatives in Italy. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 72, 4–22. http://doi.org/10.1016/J.SBSPRO.2013.02.002

Siegler, V. (2014, July 18). Measuring Social Capital. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281293496_Measuring_Social_Capital_in_the_UK_July_2014_Office_for_National_Statistics

Statistics New Zealand. (2002). The Measurement of Social Capital in New Zealand. International Conference on Social Capital Measurement. Statistics New Zealand.

Suandi. (2007). Modal Sosial dan Kesejahteraan Ekonomi Keluarga di Daerah Perdesaan Provinsi Jambi. Bogor Agricultural University. Retrieved from https://repository.ipb.ac.id/handle/123456789/40884

United Nations. (2007). Public Administration and Democratic Governance: Governments Serving Citizens. Retrieved from https://publicadministration.un.org/publications/content/PDFs/E-Library Archives/2007 Public Administration and Democratic Governance_Governments Serving Citizens.pdf

Warsilah, H. (2015). Pembangunan Inklusif Sebagai Upaya Mereduksi Eksklusi Sosial Perkotaan: Kasus Kelompok Marjinal di Kampung Semanggi, Solo, Jawa Tengah. Jurnal Masyarakat Dan Budaya, 17(2), 207–232. http://doi.org/10.14203/JMB.V17I2.283

Yang, K. (2007). Individual Social Capital and Its Measurement in Social Surveys. Survey Research Methods, 1(1), 19–27. http://doi.org/10.18148/srm/2007.v1i1.48

Published
2018-11-12
Section
Articles